What Are Video Slot Machines

There is nothing quite like the excitement and thrill of stepping into the Best Casino Gambling Hangout. The flashing lights, the sounds of slots rolling, and the laughter and shrill squeals of delight when someone scores big.

These are just a few reasons why more and more Casino and Gambling Facilities are opening their doors each and every year. Not only on land, but also Internet Casino Gambling sites as well. It seems that every week a dozen or more Online Casino Gambling sites light up our computer screens. The quality of these online casinos is also growing more and more superior as technology advances along with the love and passion of players.

Many online casinos even offer the same thrills and atmosphere that you can find in a busy land casino. However, online casinos offer you the ease and pleasure of playing from the comfort and security of your own home. This allows you to create your own comfort. In fact, you can play while laying bed or sitting at your desk in your boxers.

Regardless of whether you are playing on land or from home there is now no doubt that the Casino Cash Cow is on the rise. In fact, there are hundreds of individuals all over the world who are raking in a wealthy living from simply playing online casino games for high payouts.

What exactly is a Casino Cash Cow? A Casino Cash Cow is an online casino that offers high payouts. These high payouts in some cases match or can even exceed the payouts that land casinos offer. Many online casinos network with other online casinos in order to pull pots to offer huge payouts to their members and visitors. They pull their money and have weekly or monthly events wherein you can see the full effects of a Casino Cash Cow in action. slot online

Smaller online casinos that only cater to specific games such as general slots and are not affiliated with other online casinos or major business partners don’t usually offer such high payouts. This is why it is important for you to do your research before becoming a member of any online casino. You will want to make sure that if you are paying a membership fee that you are signing up for a casino with high payouts and not a simple “backyard” casino with low to moderate payouts.

The Casino Gambling Information from Casino Cash Cow is what keeps members coming back, and keeps members from bouncing from one online casino to another. This is why so many online casinos have pulled their resources together in order to offer these large payout events on a regular basis. Working together they can pull in hundreds of thousands of dollars to award their members for simply playing on their sites.

Simply speaking, high payouts are what give any Online Casino staying power. The more money they are putting out and offering in pots and winnings to Casino Gambling Pros will result in their business making more money. You can always tell if an online casino is worth your money by looking at the extend of their payouts and bonuses. Find your big payout casino and stick with it. Don’t mess with small payouts and rewards when you can find a single high payout casino and become a millionaire over night.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

The Basics of Sports Betting – An Introduction to Football Betting

Football betting has changed dramatically over the last few years with all the betting websites that have appeared, offering you the chance to place bets from the comfort of your own home. Also, the competition amongst bookmakers has increased in extreme levels. In this article we will discuss a few ideas to help you find the best football betting system.

First thing you must know is that no betting system, no matter how smart it is, that can make you instant cash. Every system that promises that is a scum. Instead the best football betting system should gradually make you money time after time teaching you more and improving your techniques and methods. sbobet

The best football betting should involve minimal risk (one that will never let you run into big trouble when losing bets) and let the bookmakers do most of the work. It should also be simple to understand and be implemented and it used be utilized either with online or offline bets. It shouldn’t require a lot of time every day to be applied but most of all it should make you enough to keep working with it at your own pace.

Now you know what a football betting system should be make a list of all these features (write them on paper or notepad). It’s time to start searching online to find the system that will allow you to build a steady income and enjoy the life you want. Visit a major search engine and enter the term “Football betting system” or “Find football betting system”. It’s time to change your life around.

You will literally encounter thousands of football betting websites. Most of all are not offering systems but they are actually betting sites where you sign up for an account and you are ready to place your bets. But you want a system that will tell you how to utilize the above websites. Try to locate these webpages (there are quite a few) that refer to actual betting systems. Bookmark them all on folder on your favorites. You’ve got to keep researching until you find at least 12 or more (maybe 20). Now is the time to compare their features. Patiently visit each website and read what they have to offer having in mind the advice I gave you on the first part of this article. Your goal would be to find the single website that offers a unique football betting system that could gradually increase your bank week after week.

 

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Dimanakah Kasino Terbaik?

Jika Anda ingin mendapatkan tips tentang cara memenangkan mesin slot terbesar, baca ini. Anda akan menemukan cara memilih mesin slot jackpot yang memungkinkan Anda meningkatkan uang Anda.

Selama beberapa dekade sekarang, permainan mesin slot telah memesona sejumlah pengunjung kasino. Ini karena bermain slot mampu memberikan individu hiburan terbaik yang dapat diimpikan oleh siapa pun. Bahkan ada sebagian orang yang melihat permainan slot sebagai sarana rekreasi yang sempurna yang akan membebaskan mereka dari stres yang mereka alami dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Bagi sebagian orang, bermain slot adalah cara terbaik untuk mendapatkan uang dengan mudah. slot online

Saat memainkan permainan mesin slot, orang biasanya mengandalkan keberuntungan. Meskipun tidak mungkin untuk memastikan mendapatkan jackpot di sebagian besar permainan slot, seseorang mungkin masih dapat meningkatkan peluangnya untuk memenangkan sejumlah besar uang saat bermain game ini.

Salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan peluang Anda mendapatkan jackpot adalah mempelajari cara mengidentifikasi mesin mana yang bagus untuk dimainkan. Ada dua jenis slot – progresif dan non-progresif. Mesin slot progresif diatur untuk membiarkan pemain memenangkan sejumlah besar uang setelah menang. Wajar jika mesin jenis ini memiliki hadiah jackpot dalam jumlah besar karena mesin ini saling berhubungan dengan mesin progresif lainnya di dalam kasino. Bahkan terkadang terhubung dengan mesin lain di kasino lain. Ketika hadiah jackpot tidak dimenangkan pada hari itu, itu akan terakumulasi di hari-hari berikutnya. Inilah sebabnya mengapa orang mungkin memiliki mesin slot terbesar yang menang dengan slot progresif.

Pertanyaannya adalah bagaimana Anda menentukan mesin mana yang progresif? Hal ini sederhana. Satu hal yang dapat Anda lakukan adalah memberi tip kepada karyawan kasino dan bertanya di mana mesin ini dipasang. Berhati-hatilah saat memberi tip kepada karyawan kasino karena mereka mungkin memikat Anda untuk kehilangan lebih banyak uang daripada membiarkan Anda menang. Di sebagian besar kasino, slot progresif memiliki label untuk memudahkan identifikasi.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Bahamas Luxury Real Estate

There are no income taxes, capital gains taxes, inheritance taxes, or sales taxes in the Bahamas. However, the Bahamas do charge Stamp Duty (+VAT) on the conveyance of property. This is a consumption tax and is charged on real estate sales, commissions, and legal fees. Customs duties are also a source of revenue for the Bahamas government. The average duty rate is around 35 percent. In most cases, the Value Added Tax is added to the duty.

While foreigners are not required to have a residency permit to purchase property in the Bahamas, there are restrictions. Non-Bahamians can purchase residential property if the property is less than five acres. However, if a buyer wishes to buy a larger piece of land, he will need to obtain a permit from the Bahamas Investment Authority. He must submit a project proposal, including financial projections, and information regarding the employment needs of the property.

While purchasing a property in the Bahamas, it is important to choose the right broker to finance the transaction. A specialist mortgage broker is recommended if the property is worth more than $2 million. These brokers are able to explain different options and answer any questions regarding Bahamas property finance. It is also helpful to contact a real estate agent who specializes in buying and selling property in the Bahamas.

Before making a purchase, make sure to research the market. Many foreign buyers are drawn to the relaxed lifestyle and attractive real estate market in the Bahamas. A real estate agent can help you choose a property that suits your needs and budget. Using a comparative market analysis (CMA) can also help you determine the appropriate price for the property. This will provide you with an idea of what comparable homes in the Bahamas sold for.

The Bahamas is an island nation with a vibrant capital city and numerous picturesque islands. If bahamas luxury real estate are looking for a property in paradise, the Bahamas is the perfect choice. The Bahamas is a one-hour flight from Miami. As a result, it attracts a wider range of nationalities than other Caribbean nations. The islands of New Providence and Paradise Island are the main centers of the tourist industry in the Bahamas.

The Bahamas has a mature real estate market and low taxes. The property transaction process is secure and transparent. When buying property in the Bahamas, an attorney will check the title validity and make sure that the property’s history is accurate. It is also important to check the abstracts of property, since any missing abstracts can reduce the property’s marketability.

The Bahamas is also an ideal destination for people who love the outdoors. The climate is tropical and the beaches are pristine. The Bahamas also has a low tax rate, making it easy to finance a luxury property in the Bahamas.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Bahamas Luxury Real Estate

The purchase and sale of property in the Bahamas is typically handled through a Bahamian attorney or counsel. This attorney will act on the client’s behalf and take necessary steps to ensure that the title to the property is clear and good. The attorney will also arrange for the completion of the transaction. The Bahamas Property Code requires buyers to pay a stamp duty that varies depending on the purchase price.

The Bahamas is a picturesque archipelago of hundreds of islands. Investors can benefit from the country’s attractive tax regime and access to world-class shopping and spas. Luxury homes for sale and rent can be found in a variety of locations throughout the archipelago. Here, you can find the perfect property that matches your tastes and lifestyle.

The Bahamas is home to some of the most exquisite real estate in the world. American investors are attracted by its proximity to the US and the attractive lifestyle it offers. The low tax environment and stable political system also make it a good place to invest. The government is also committed to making the country more accessible to investors and property owners. In October 2002, the country established the ministry of financial services and announced plans to streamline the purchasing process for real estate.

There are no income, capital gains, or inheritance taxes in The Bahamas. However, there is a compulsory stamp duty (VAT) on property conveyance. The VAT is 7.5 percent, and is also paid on legal fees and commissions. In addition, the Bahamas government earns revenue through customs duties. Duty rates on imported goods average 35 percent. Value Added Tax is added on top of this.

When buying Bahamas property, it is important to know what type of residency requirements you must satisfy. If you intend to live in the Bahamas permanently, you’ll need to register the property. If bahamas luxury real estate is less than five acres, you don’t need a permit. However, if the property is larger than five acres, you’ll have to apply for a permit from the Bahamas Investment Authority. The government does not require a passport, but it does require proof of residency, which is vital for anti-money laundering purposes.

Non-Bahamians are encouraged to invest in the Bahamas. As part of this policy, the Bahamas government has developed policy documents that make the purchase of Bahamian property easier for non-Bahamians. The International Land Holdings Act, 1993, is one such policy document. To buy a property in The Bahamas, non-nationals must register with the Central Bank and the Investments Board. This registration process typically costs $25 to $100.

When buying Bahamas property, it is important to understand the local architecture. Traditional buildings are made in a colonial style, with island accents. These properties often feature dormer windows and high-pitched wood shingle roofs. In addition, homes often feature wooden covered verandahs and French doors. However, some modern homes have removed these features in favour of modern features. The Bahamas also has a large expatriate community.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Casino Online – Poker Bots

Many gambling chats and news groups devoted to poker more and more frequently anxiously mention the so-called card-playing robots, known as “bots” in the nomenclature of the Web, that are being used on commercial gambling sites. Many players are sure that a number of gambling portals prospers due to the use of the special programs, able to beat an above-average player, not mentioning a beginner. In a traditional casino you can always guess the weak sides of your competitor, figure out his strategy and etc, in a virtual gaming house there is no telling your competitor is a human, but not specially created program, “substituted” for a real player.

If it is true, then widespread of poker bots capable of beating an average player would pose a significant problem for poker sector. Without creation of a special system verifying the identity and “humanity” of cards players in on-line casinos, the business could be significantly undercut. This is an opinion of players themselves, and gambling figures, interested in further development of on-line game industry.

Some skeptics say that, considering the complexity of the game and constantly changing strategies, creation of the program that can read opponents’ cards using special techniques of screen scanning and respond in real time is many decades away at best. mega888 of this point of view point to the variety of commercial programs that purport to help players, but with no actual effect. However there is a ready answer for all of these objections – in Canadian University of Alberta a computer poker research group has developed an artificially intelligent automaton known as “Vex Bot”. This robot is capable of playing poker at master level in a game with two players. The new system has already been used to test the frontiers of artificial intelligence, as it will be the basis for commercial poker tutorial program. As soon as the news about robot creation was published in media, the creators began to receive letters mentioning the danger of system use for the purposes of illegal gambling business.

Darse Billings who is lead designer of “Vex Bot” considers that probability of the use of bots on commercial sites is approximately 50:50, but he is also sure that all of the modern programs can unlikely match his creation, which is a result of a 10 years research work of a team of specialists.

“The strategy of the game is difficult and to sit down and write a program that can beat a table of experienced human players is no trivial task,” Billings said. According to his the opinion, the biggest obstacles lie in the amount of information unavailable to the player and the need for the program to be able to employ a variety of strategies at different times, such as bluffing and laying traps for opponents, etc Exactly for this purpose artificial intelligence was added to the system, capable not only calculate probabilities but also line up logic of game, model it’s opponents behavior, etc.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Online Gambling and Online Roulette

The online entertainment world is booming and is the number one source of entertainment. There is a vast source of free entertainment online including free online movies, popular TV series. Another, rapidly expanding area of online entertainment is gaming and now, even legal online gambling,

There is a game for every taste online if you know where to go. There are sites for casual online gaming, role-play and the process of joining online gaming communities is fun and easy. A top online gaming site is addictinggames.com – most of the games are free and you can choose form single player, interactive and multiplayer games. If you want to get really wild, you can even bet money while you play. Online gambling is legal and growing in popularity each day.

Online gambling is just like gambling in a casino and you have to know your local online gambling law before signing onto a site. For example, at online casino you can go to the online beginners guide and read through the frequently asked questions. They have detailed definitions of exactly what online gambling is, different kinds of casinos and different kinds of games. To get started, know the law. Online gambling is technically illegal, meaning that online casinos cannot process gambling transactions, they can however, process casino sites allow players to put in and remove their own money according to area regulations. You will be totally responsible for making sure you are following the law at all online casinos, a tip is to look for the flag next to your state and click on payment options.

After you choose your site and know your area laws, you’ll want to learn now to play. Online Casino Roulette is just one of many games offered online. For beginners, there is even a roulette casino game trainer that takes you through a very detailed tutorial. Start there and when you’re confident move to the advanced trainer and then join a live game!

Roulette is a game of rules and is one of the most easily online games available. One person manages it and you spin the roulette rule at about 100 spins per hour, depending on number of players. mega888 The roulette handler is called the croupier and he spins the wheel in one direction while shooting the roulette ball in the other direction. When the ball stops the number, color of the winner is announced and you get paid if you hit! It is a popular game because it’s easy, social and like all gambling-a gambling thrill. Everyone one loves being social and winning money-even the losers share in the excitement.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Which TV Shows Have Slot Machine Potential?

Which of the current generation of TV shows, or past, might make a good slots game? With the Sex and the City Slot Machine the biggest thing in the Vegas casinos right now, there must be plenty of designers looking at adaptations.

The first thing slots designers are looking for now is something that both sexes enjoy, and Bones can definitely fit into this category. Bones has good looking male and female leads in David Boreanaz and Emily Deschanel, that will attract guys and girls alike. They’d certainly make good slots characters, as might some of their sidekicks.

The slots could also appeal to guys with some slightly gruesome tools of their forensic anthropology work, and what might be better than a bonus game that had you trying to get the two main characters, Brennan and Booth together. Come on licensees, work at it!

There is also definitely potential in a Seinfeld slot, even though the series has been finished for a while. With all the catch phrases that the show inspired, there are lots of room for good animations and video clips to make a really entertaining video slot game. Need I say anything else other than “They’re real – AND they’re spectacular”.

918kiss There is a good enough cast again to make symbols with Jerry, Elaine, George, Kramer and Newman and lots of potential for different bonuses. The “Get George a Job bonus”, the Elaine dating bonus – so many ideas. It’s just a shame that the image rights might put this slot machine out of reach of the marketeers.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Reasons to Choose Online Gambling Casinos

Gambling in casinos can give you a thrilling experience, but did you know that online gambling sites can also be as fun? There are actually a number of reasons to choose online gambling casinos instead.

For one, you can play whenever you want to. You do not need to dress up, get out and interact with people. You simply waste no time and jump straight into the game of your choice. There are actually two types of online gambling sites, one which is free and does not require you to pay a single cent (of course, except for your electric bills), and the other would be real money online casino games which would require players to pay a deposit upon registration, and the winnings will go to them if they win. Regardless of the type, there are different levels of experience available, ranging from amateur to professional. This allows a player to either pick up on experience or to display their abilities.

Another reason to play online is because you are in control of your environment. In real casinos, there would be music, people chattering, and you would be able to hear games from other ongoing games on other tables. These can be extremely distracting and might affect your concentration in playing. Online casinos, on the other hand, only focus on the table you are playing at. It is as though you are playing in a place only made for this round of game. But if you do not like sounds at all, you can just mute it.

918kiss Other than that, it can serve as a place to start off at before going to the real casino to gamble. Online casinos have the same rules and regulations with the games, and only carry minor differences. As this is the case, one can practice as much as they want online before facing the real thing with confidence. This way, you do not face as much embarrassment the first time if you are new in the game. All in all, online gambling casinos make a great place to gain gambling experiences.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Casino Online Betting System – Positive Progression System

If you talk about the casino online betting system, you will find there are many people who will discourage you. They will say that betting online really is not a good resource to make money. But I will say that it is very easy to earn from online casino games, if you know the casino online betting strategies. Actually money management knowledge is what most of the gamblers lack. Hence some are already bankrupt whereas some are enjoying an affluent life. Did anyone of you hear about “Positive Progression System”, this is one of the very well known casino online betting strategy.

mega888 You can say this is a logic that tells you the possibilities of winning four times in a single row. At the beginning or just at the preliminary stage the bet is of 1 unit, the second bet is of 3 units, the third bet is of 2 units and the fourth bet is of 6 units. Therefore it is also called the 1-3-2-6 system.

I will illustrate this casino online betting system in detail, to give you a clear understanding. For instance you place your first bet of $10. The second bet is supposed to be $30 – when you win the first bet, your $10 gets added up with the $20 already placed on the table. The total comes to $30.

So the second bet you place would be of $30. The grand total before you play the third bet will be of $60 total (the $30 bet placed by you in the second bet combined together with the second bet winning already placed on the table). From the $60 you take away $40 and the third bet is of $20.

Your third bet will be of $20 and after winning the third bet you will win $40. Now, for the fourth bet you will add $20 more to the total $40 to make it a $60 bet for the forth bet you place.

Winning the fourth bet you will be left with $120. This is the net profit you make from this casino online betting system. To continue the game you will again place a bet of $10 and follow the “Positive Progression System” once again. After ending the forth bet, you start over again. Moreover, each time you loose a bet, start again with initial $10 bet.

Calculate your loss at each level. If you lose during the:

– initial or first bet, then your total loss is of $10.
– second bet, then your total loss will be of $20 (this because you have added $10)
– third bet, then your accumulated loss will also give you a total profit of $20 (this is because you have already taken away $40).
– fourth bet, then your loss and profit is equal (just because you have taken away $40 and added $20).

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Put Your Television Where You Want It With TV Brackets

As televisions have evolved over the years, the picture has gotten larger but the television itself has become slimmer. When the first flat screen televisions were first introduced, they were expensive but extremely popular because people liked the idea of saving a lot of room while still getting a large picture. The old style entertainment centres that were used to house the televisions with the large footprint started to become a thing of the past. oneplus smart tv People were putting their new flat screen televisions on raised tables and entertainment units that had flat tops but plenty of compartments to hold cable boxes and video games.

The television manufacturers saw a practical way of making things even easier for consumers by offering TV brackets for wall mounting televisions. People could now have their televisions mounted directly to the wall and avoid using any floor space at all for a large entertainment shelving unit. People were mounting their televisions to the walls and building recessed shelves into the walls to hold cable boxes and all of the other accessories that go with television viewing. The idea caught on and brackets became extremely popular. But there are some installation tips all consumers should keep in mind before mounting their televisions to the walls.

A TV bracket kit must be the right size to accommodate the width and weight of a flat screen television. These televisions may be thinner, but they are still very heavy. If you use the wrong mounting kit, then you will damage your wall and your television. In most cases, the proper mounting equipment will be outlined in the television user’s manual. You can also call a retail outlet that sells the kits and give them your television model number to get the proper kit.

When mounting a television to the wall, the brackets need to be installed into wall studs to make sure that the television stays in place. If you are not comfortable with the process of mounting your television to the wall, then you should hire a professional to do the job properly. The extra investment in having an experienced contractor do the work for you will be well worth it when your television is safely in place and there is no damage to the unit or the wall. TV brackets are a great idea, but it may be a good idea to have someone install the kit that is familiar with how to do it properly.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Do You Have the Need For Refrigerator Troubleshooting?

Refrigerators are one of the most common appliances which can be found in the home of nearly every American. Over 99.5% of the households in the country will have a refrigerator of some size, model, or brand present. Naturally, however, being a complex appliance, there is always the potential that something could go wrong with it. Instead of immediately calling a repair technician, however, you should take advantage of the fact that you may find resources to help you with refrigerator troubleshooting.

Minor problems can arise that you should be able to fix without putting too much time or effort into the process. They are also relatively safe procedures that you can perform without risking damage to the refrigerator unit itself. If you want to save some time, effort, and money, you should try troubleshooting the problem before you call for assistance. It may end up being a very simple effort that you need to take.

Some of the biggest problems which typically arise in refrigerators will be simple issues that should not require much time. One of the most common problems which may arise in a refrigerator would be the presence of water where it is not supposed to be. If you are experiencing water dripping inside your refrigerator, your drainage system may actually be clogged. Fixing this is usually a very simple process.

To fix a clogged drainage system, you should first unplug the refrigerator. Find the drainage system, which is typically a hose that is located somewhere around the crisper drawer. By filling a baster with hot water and a little baking soda, you should be able to produce a solution that will give you the ability to clean out this hose. Pipe cleaners may also unblock the hose itself and allow the drainage system to flow once more.

If there is water on the floor outside of your refrigerator, the problem will usually arise because of the drain pan. Instead of the hose, you may have a problem in the place where the refrigerator is supposed to deposit the water. In this tray, next to the heat produced by the refrigerator, the water will typically evaporate.

Should that water not be evaporating, however, there is a problem located inside of the pan itself. It may be cracked or there may be buildup of dirt. After the refrigerator is unplugged, locate the drain pan and carefully remove it from the refrigerator. If it is dirty, you should take the time to clean it out. If it is cracked, find a replacement drain pan and replace the broken one. Should this not solve your problem though, there is probably an issue with a hose inside the refrigerator itself. A technician will probably need to be called to fix this issue.

You may need to have refrigerator troubleshooting if your refrigerator is never cycling off. It will be running constantly, which will make your refrigerator itself too cold. You will be using a great deal of electricity and your model itself is not going to be energy efficient. Determining the cause of this problem does not have to be difficult.

The temperature of your refrigerator may be set to too cold of a setting. This means that the refrigerator has to constantly work to maintain that setting. If you start by trying to turn your refrigerator up to a warmer temperature, this may solve your problems. lg fridge 190 litre 5 star should cycle off shortly and you will have fixed your issue.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Tips to Understanding the CARB Stationary Refrigeration Equipment Program

Many of today’s AC/HVAC systems and refrigerant products have high global warming (GWP) potential emissions. These include air conditioning (AC) in cars, homes and office buildings, commercial and home refrigerators, fire suppressant systems, and much more. Many of today’s AC/HVAC systems and refrigerant products have high global warming (GWP) potential emissions. These include air conditioning (AC) in cars, homes and office buildings, commercial and home refrigerators, fire suppressant systems, and much more. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) Stationary Equipment Refrigerant Management Program is intended to reduce the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the use of chemically formulated consumer products. The drafted regulation orders for managing High Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants.

The proposed California Air Resource Board (CARB) draft legislation is identified as Subchapter 10, Article X, Sections 9 through 17 with sub-sections included of the California Code of Regulations which was created on September 4, 2008. As of this writing, the CARB early action members are working through a schedule of meetings to collect any feedback and refine the Stationary Equipment Refrigerant Management Program before it becomes law later in 2009.

Understanding refrigerant gas management regulations, including the 2009 CARB program and the expected EPA regulations, one can break down the overall topics into three main areas:

* Purpose, * Applicability, and * Definitions

Purpose of Stationary Equipment Refrigerant Management Program

The purpose of the regulation relates to the management of high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant. The new laws, taking effect in January of 2010, will reduce or eliminate emissions of refrigerant gases from AC/HVAC systems and related industrial refrigeration units. Secondary to reduction of emissions from refrigerants is the requirement for owners and operators of such equipment to institute new methods of reclaiming, recycling or recovering refrigerant as well as to encourage proper repair or replacement of obsolete refrigeration and air conditioning equipment with state-of-the-art (SOTA) equipment.

CARB and many of the leading manufacturers are in discussions to ensure that manufacturer specifications meet the emerging CARB and EPA standards. Unfortunately, there are challenges with cylinder management. It is often difficult to maintain accurate labels or tracking information for refrigerant containers passed throughout the industry. More work among manufacturers will lead to the creation of unique serial numbers to accurately track cylinders. For pervasive industry wide tracking of refrigerant gases, the establishment of a set of protocols for cylinder identification will continue to be important.

Applicability of AC/HVAC System Monitoring, Tracking, and Registration

These regulations provide a better understanding of who must comply. Essentially, the new CARB refrigerant management program applies to;

A) Any persons who own or operate stationary refrigeration or air conditioning systems containing refrigerant gas, and

B) Any persons who are engaged in installation, repair, maintenance, service, replacement recycling or disposal of stationary refrigeration or air conditioning systems as well as sellers of refrigerant.

Definitions and Key Refrigerant Gas Management Terms

Included in the CARB regulations is a useful guide that explains in detail many of the regulatory terms applicable and in hoping to facilitate enhanced compliance. In this section, refrigerant gases, refrigerant leak, refrigerant usage events are explained in detail so that facility refrigerant management and refrigerant tracking are easily reported. Additional definitions and applicable citations include “Additional Refrigerant Charge”, “Air Conditioning System”, which defines AC/HVAC equipment as it applies to the regulation, “Air District” which means an Air Quality Management District or Air Pollution Control District for the purpose of refrigerant reporting and submittals, “Air Pollution Control Officer”, and a citation for “Automatic Leak Detection” as well as for specification for qualifications on certifications for reclaimers and other certified technicians.

Why Refrigerant System Management is Such a Big Deal

Understanding the CARB Stationary Equipment Refrigerant Management Program regulation is simplified and outlined in their 27-page draft. Through the first part of 2009, the CARB early actions group will make revisions to the Stationary Refrigeration Equipment Program. lg double door fridge 260 ltr 3 star It is known, due to mandatory deadlines for completion of this regulation that it will pass in 2009 and be effective in 2010.

As with all environmental compliance, determining whether an owner or operator must comply is the first step. Using the 2009 CARB draft as a guide, refrigerant management from an enforcement and user standpoint addresses the problem of refrigerant gases that increase global warming effects in a judicious and effective initiative.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment